Latin America & the Caribbean

In Key West: a museum with a heart

When it comes to literary museums, there’s somewhere you need to visit while you’re in Key West. If you know something about the place, you’re probably thinking of Ernest Hemingway’s house. It’s a popular stop: the queue to get in and see this historic home and its present day six-toed feline residents snaked around the block when I popped in for a visit.

CFFCF60D-EB77-4171-ABD7-19288DC63E1CNevertheless, you’d be wrong.  Though I wanted to like it, I found it hard to make an emotional connection with the Hemingway place.  The museum to which I refer has no cats – at least none I saw while I was there.  Instead, the newly reopened and expanded Tennessee Williams exhibit had heart and soul in spades compared to its more famous neighbour.


The museum is the result of years of collecting and a true labour of love. I was fortunate that Dennis Beaver was available to give me a curator’s tour. The passion he had for his subject and the stories he had to tell added an extra dimension to the already fascinating collection of exhibits.  Somehow he brought to life so vividly a playwright who’d hitherto been a stranger to me that I felt I’d known him personally.

Describing Tennessee Williams, Dennis painted a picture of a man who loved to entertain the rich and famous. Yet home was a relatively modest place on Duncan Street, a short walk from the museum and now a private home.  A tall white fence protects its current occupants from peeping eyes, but there’s a beautifully crafted model in the museum should you wish to see what would have been inside.

Photos of Williams with the Hollywood glitterati of the time revealed that he moved in glamorous circles. But behind the public facade was a complicated and insecure individual. A childhood bout of diphtheria had left him a lasting legacy of hypochondria. If a visitor complained of a cold, Dennis said, Williams would believe he’d caught it.


It would take a special someone to manage that anxiety and that person was Frank Merlo. He dealt with the minutiae of Williams’ life, acting as the buffer between the playwright and an outside world that made constant demands on him. At first, Williams would refer to Frank as his assistant, or something equally businesslike. In fact he was his partner and the rock of his personal life. Frank though would die young, succumbing to lung cancer aged just 41. Williams fell apart, mourning the loss of his right hand man.  He was famously quoted as saying that after Frank’s death he entered his “stoned age” dependent on prescription drugs and alcohol to fill the void.


The Williams we know was a prolific playwright. Seventeen of his plays were turned into successful movies, among them Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and A Streetcar named Desire. The Rose Tattoo was another, set in Tennessee’s adopted Key West locale.  But he didn’t enjoy the process of creating a screenplay, often opting to turn his work over to someone else.  In many ways he saw the Technicolor world of the movies as a distraction. When he did get involved, he preferred to make a film in black and white so as not to detract from the story.

When the end came, it was dramatic and tragic as much of his life had been.  Newspapers reported Williams had choked on the top of a medicine bottle, while his brother claimed he’d been murdered.  Years later his death would officially be recorded as an accidental overdose of sleeping pills.  His brother ignored Williams’ wish to be buried at sea, instead interring him at Calvary Cemetery in St Louis, the city in which he’d grown up and the city he professed to hate.

Whether you know much or little about Tennessee Williams and his work, this little museum is a must if you’re visiting the place he called home. No matter that this isn’t his house – you’ll get a greater insight into his world from fragments of a life lived than you might from a collection of period furniture. Find it at 513 Truman Street, a stone’s throw from the buzz of Duval.


While the opinions recorded here are my own, I’m grateful to the museum for waiving the $7 entrance fee – though I’d have happily paid it.


Trinidad: sugar and slaves

Trinidad’s fortunes were made in sugar and slaves. A few kilometres from the city, the Valle de los Ingenios is littered with the ruins of long abandoned sugar mills. While Cuba still harvests fields of sugar cane, production has long since moved away from this region.


Standing in the grounds of the San Isidro de los Destiladeros mill, little imagination is required to picture how the scene would have been a century or two ago. The main house is still intact, a little weatherbeaten perhaps but not yet derelict. Its cedar windows and doors have been bleached by decades of sun. These days they’d pass for shabby chic and be considered worthy of a magazine spread. Back then, they were functional, the heavy shutters designed to keep the house cool despite its tropical setting.

Across the clearing my guide pointed out a bell tower, used as a lookout and built to call time for those toiling in the fields or factory buildings. Beyond the tower is what remains of the factory’s foundations and beyond that, the slave quarters, hidden away in the forest and once shielded from view by the factory itself. The prevailing wind had also been taken into account when siting the main house, so that sensitive noses wouldn’t have to contend with the sickly sweet smell of molasses.


The first mill on this site opened in 1776. Initially its assets were limited to just three horses, ten slaves and a single small sugar press. The Spaniard who owned it sold up to one Pedro Malamoros Borrell, who grew the farm and gave it the name we use today. He owned many slaves and life was tough for them. From November to April, they’d work ten days on and one off, working long hours in the hot sun and humid conditions cutting the cane.


Others grafted in the factory pushing the sugar presses known as trapiches which squeezed juice from the raw cane. It was dangerous work and not uncommon for workers to lose an arm if it caught in the press. Though much of the mill lies in ruins, you can still see where the sugar would have been boiled to create molasses. My guide explained how heat passed along the row of nine pans, gradually getting cooler the further the distance it travelled from the centre. The cane juice was cleaned and transferred from pan to pan as well, constantly stirred until crystals formed to turn it into muscovado sugar.


On the ground I spotted what looked like a rotten coconut. In fact it was the fruit of a güira tree. Used to make bowls from which the drink canchánchara could be served, they were also used to present offerings to the gods. My guide told me of an altogether more down to earth use: the insides are considered an effective flea treatment for dogs, and probably better for them than the chemical treatment I use back home, albeit gross to apply.


Between May and October the slaves would have been rented out for other work. Slaves were entitled to keep a quarter of their pay, the rest lining their owner’s pockets. Savings could buy freedom. Slaves were more likely to purchase freedom for their children than themselves, or to use the money to pay for their own small house just outside the communal barracks.


Though their lives were strictly controlled and conversion to Catholicism encouraged, the practice of African religions such as Santeria continued. A ceiba tree is considered sacred to followers of Santeria, representing Changó, the God of Thunder as its soft bark renders it lightning-proof. One stands to this day near where the barracks once were, a face visible in its trunk.

Borrell sold up in the mid 19th century to Carlos Malibrán and made a killing. But within a few short years, a crisis would hit the sugar industry. Malibrán would offload the property just four years later. Across the valley, crop rotation had been overlooked by mill owners greedy for profit and the soil had lost its fertility year in year. Yields fell and as competition from Europe’s sugar beet farmers felled prices, the rug was pulled from under Cuban sugar’s feet. The new owner of San Isidro de los Destiladeros mill lost pretty much everything and ended up mortgaged to the hilt. What had been fields of sugar cane were turned over to pasture.


As the Cuban war for independence gathered momentum in 1868, slaves saw their opportunity to gain their freedom by joining the army. The flight of labour was another nail in the industry’s coffin. By 1898, the owners of the San Isidro de los Destiladeros mill had closed up and moved to Sancti Spiritus and the factory was demolished. Ownership passed to the Fonseca family in 1905 and they lived here until 2012. Burdened by the cost of restoration, they donated the house and ruins to the state.

Getting there
I arranged a morning visit to Valle de los Ingenios with Paradiso – a place on a shared tour cost 22 CUCs. You’ll find their tour agency at General Lino Pérez 30 about a minute’s walk from the Etecsa office in Trinidad. Alternatively haggle with a driver of a classic car, making sure you negotiate for the taxi to wait.

On the trail of the mob in Havana

The classic American automobiles that cruise the Malecón ooze the glamour of bygone days, but 1950s Havana had a seedy alter ego. Mob-run casinos drew a decadent crowd. Vices of all kinds took centre stage. Traces of this era of such excess can still be seen today – if you know where to look.  Curious, I contacted Havana Super Tour and asked guide and founder Michael Rodriguez to let me in on a few of Havana’s dark secrets. Waiting to take us back in time was an immaculate silver grey Pontiac driven by owner Ricardo. Michael joked that Cuban men value their cars more highly than anything else in their lives – even their women. I’m not convinced that’s true of only Cuba.


We began where the charmingly decrepit mansions of Habana Vieja give way to the boulevards of Centro. Gambling is banned in today’s Cuba, but the old casinos have been repurposed as conference rooms and elegant salons in many of the capital’s most renowned and once notorious hotels. One of them is the historic Hotel Sevilla. I’d stayed there during my first visit to Cuba fifteen years ago and around the corner from the exquisite Moorish-style lobby where I’d once checked in is a rogue’s gallery of past guests – good and bad. This time my focus was on the latter. Michael steered me towards a photograph of Al Capone, perhaps Chicago’s most notorious gangster, who used to book out the entire sixth floor when he was in town. Privacy comes at a price when you need to make sure no one eavesdrops.


Michael led me across the street to a tiny store selling antiquarian books and other memorabilia from times past. Leafing through a folder of old black and white photos, he showed me how some of the Cuban capital’s hotels would have looked in Batista’s day and in the years immediately following the overthrow of his government. The city was the place to see and be seen. Hollywood’s biggest names came in their droves with Frank Sinatra leading the pack. Scandal was never far away. Michael reckoned that despite rumours that Sinatra’s singing career had initially been financed by the mob, he was clean – in Havana anyway. Some of his associates, however, were not.


The biggest player of all on the Havana mob scene was an East European Jew who’d come to the USA to reinvent himself. Smart as they came, Meyer Lansky grew up in New York with Lucky Luciano. Lansky was the brains to Luciano’s brawn and together, they made a formidable pair. You messed with them at your peril. Having operated out of the Nacional for years, Lansky had his hands in a number of other businesses, including the successful Montmartre Club which was eventually torched by a revolutionary supporter in the early 1960s.


Over a Mafia mojito at the Nacional. Michael told me that it was common for a Hollywood name to provide a respectable front for the money laundering, shady deals and violent altercations that were going on behind the scenes. Actor George Raft got his big break in the 1932 gangster movie Scarface. When New York mobster Santa Trafficante Jnr. opened the Capri, he needed someone to be its respectable public face. But though it was commonly held that Raft owned a sizeable stake in the hotel, Nicholas Di Costanzo, Charlie “The Blade” Tourine and Santino “Sonny the Butcher” Masselli operated it. It doesn’t take a genius to work out that many of the regular clientele were anything but legit themselves.


Lansky himself opened the Riviera Hotel in 1956 as a front for his deals. It was one of many businesses through which he could launder his ill-gotten gains. Though he claimed Cuba ruined him when Castro rolled into Havana, under Batista’s regime he’d lived like a king. Despite decades of ruling the organised crime roost, the only crime the authorities ever managed to pin on him was a charge of illegal gambling.

The Riviera, our last stop, could have been a set from the hit US TV show Mad Men, had US-imposed sanctions not restricted where the studio’s dollars be spent. Mid-century modern might be back in vogue, but you’ll be hard pressed to find somewhere where the fixtures and fittings are as original as the furnishings. Walking through the doors of the Riviera Hotel was like stepping back in time, its 21st century patrons sticking out like a sore thumb in their modern apparel. Its casino was now a meeting room, the showy chandeliers the only clue to its dazzling past.


Out back the pool had a turquoise diving board that just needed a girl with an hourglass figure and a red halter neck bathing suit to complete the picture postcard shot. Instead, an elderly lady with a white swimming cap and cellulite for thighs glided at a leisurely pace through the sunlit water. Michael suggested I took a closer look at the shape of the pool which had been constructed, aptly macabre, to take the form of an open coffin.

This is a chapter of Cuba’s history that is overshadowed by Che Guevara and Castro’s revolution, but it’s no less compelling. After Batista was kicked out, Havana under Fidel’s leadership cleaned up its act. But there’s still plenty of tangible evidence to make this a fascinating tour and if you want to see a side to Havana many travellers miss, then this is most certainly it.  It’s one thing reading the story, but nothing compares to standing in the same spot of some of the 20th century’s shadiest characters.


About HST

Havana Super Tour is a rarity in Havana, a privately run enterprise which specialises in subjects as diverse as Art Deco, architecture, African religion, art or Hemingway. Alternatively, work with Michael and the HST team to design a bespoke tour to suit your own interests. Your classic car leaves from Casa 1932 at Campanario 63, a couple of blocks from the Malecón in Centro. The highly recommended Mob tour costs 35 CUCs per person, minimum two people, with transportation in a vintage automobile of course. Contact HST by email at elandarincarvajal@gmail.com or visit their website at:


The views expressed in this piece are my own, though I’m grateful to HST for offering me a private tour for the price of a group outing.

Making sense of Cuba’s currency

Cuba’s idiosyncratic monetary system can be daunting for first time visitors but it’s much simpler in practice than it might first seem.

Cuban currency is a closed currency, which means it cannot be purchased outside the country and neither can they be exchanged for other currencies outside Cuba.  The government runs a dual system: CUPs (pesos nacionales) for residents and CUCs (pesos convertibles) for visitors.  CUC notes have “pesos convertibles” written on them.  In practice, most of the time you’ll just use CUCs and prices will be referred to as pesos.  In some shops, you may see dual prices displayed, but if in doubt, just ask.  Be careful though not to get fobbed off with pesos instead of CUCs as they’re worth a lot less.  One of the best ways to avoid being scammed is never to change money on the street.  Instead use a Cadeca (exchange bureau) or bank, though you will have to queue on the street to get in.  Rates in hotels tend to be lower.

Which currency should you take?

Euros and pounds are easy to change once you arrive.  If you’re arriving independently into Havana’s Jose Marti airport, there are two choices.  Inside the arrivals hall (but after you’ve cleared immigration and customs) you’ll find a couple of ATMs next to the information kiosk.  To find an exchange bureau exit the arrivals hall and turn immediately left once you get outside.  Dispense with the taxi touts with a polite “No, gracias”.  You can change your currency at the official desk here and will be given a receipt.

What about US dollars?

The dollar isn’t king here like it is elsewhere in Latin America.  The uncomfortable relationship between Uncle Sam and Cuba adds a 10% additional commission fee to any exchange transactions, making it very poor value.  You also won’t be able to use any credit card issued by an American bank, though MasterCard and Visa issued outside the US are OK.  If you’re unsure whether this affects you, check with your issuer before you leave home.


Can you rely on credit cards?

In short, no.  It’s wise to keep a store of cash on you just in case you struggle to find an ATM.  Few places accept credit cards – this is a cash based economy.  If you haven’t prepaid your accommodation, you might find that you can’t pay by card, so double check well before you’re due to check out to avoid any problems.  However, if you’ve made an internet booking, you’ll have been able to pay by credit card in advance.  Independent travellers should carry proof of this paid reservation as the internet can be unreliable in Cuba – your accommodation provider may not have access to emails or booking systems when you arrive.

Have you seen my blog about using the internet in Cuba?

Cuba: Internet 101

When I made my first visit to Cuba fifteen years ago, outside Havana I was pretty much incommunicado.  My phone didn’t get a signal and internet was non-existent.  Travelling as a solo female, it felt pretty isolating.  Fortunately, in the intervening period, things have changed.  Telephone service is via Cubacel and there is one internet service provider in Cuba – Etecsa.


Etecsa’s often as creaky as an octogenarian’s arthritic knees but that’s all you’ve got.  While some hotels will offer WiFi, you’ll still need to log into Etecsa as well to get connected.  To do so, first you’ll need a  scratch card or “tarjeta” which is issued by Etecsa outlets.  You’ll usually find there’s a crowd at the door, with a bouncer strictly controlling who gets to enter and join the smaller queue inside.  Be polite and keep your cool unless you want to be sent to the back of the line.


Cards cost 1 CUC, about 70p at current exchange rates.  They have a number on the back and a scratch off panel which will reveal a password.  Though you can sit in the Etecsa internet lounge, in practice that’s dearer and you should expect to join most people on the street.  If you spot a crowd of people sitting on the pavement in a huddle, chances are you’ve just found the Etecsa WiFi hotspot.


Enable your WiFi and select Etecsa.  You may have to be patient to get it to connect if it’s busy. When you succeed, a screen will pop up automatically.  Enter the card number and the passcode that you’ve scratched to reveal.  If you’ve connected, a new screen will show the amount of time you have remaining for that card.  They last one hour and you can log in and out to use it on several occasions.


Social media junkies will be relieved to know that Facebook, Twitter and the like are all permitted in Cuba, unlike the situation in some other one-party states.  So long as you have a strong enough internet connection you’ll be able to bombard your friends with images and tales regaling your Cuban exploits.  In practice my ability to do so varied considerably.  Sometimes I had an excellent upload speed, other times I could barely get it to connect.  But honestly, that’s probably a good thing – time we thought more carefully about wasting precious holiday time staring at a screen.

Have you seen my blog about Cuba’s dual currency?

A beginner’s guide to Central America

The seven countries of Central America – Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala and Belize – fill an ancient land bridge joining the continents of North and South America.  Volcanic, verdant and vibrant, they offer the traveller some of the best tourist experiences in Latin America.  The difficulty is not in deciding to go, it’s working out what to leave out from your itinerary when there’s just so much to see and do.  This guide is designed to get you started.


Antigua’s famous arch frames Volcan de Agua perfectly

Getting there

For many years, getting to Central America from the UK generally meant an indirect flight, and often the cheapest flights are still those which hub through the USA.  Try looking for flights with United via Houston, American via Miami or Delta via Atlanta.  Some tour operators also offer flights without the need to buy one of their packages as well. Thomson (Tui) for example fly direct to Liberia in Costa Rica and they often have deals available last minute for around £300.  Schedules are less flexible, however and the once a week flight might not suit your needs.

If you’re looking for a European-based airline, British Airways can get you to Costa Rica non-stop and recently, Air Europa commenced the first ever direct trans-Atlantic flight to Honduras, departing from Madrid.  Another alternative is to combine Central America with Mexico – you’ll find plenty of deals via Cancun which is easily combined with Belize and Guatemala.  Similarly, you could combine Panama with delightful Colombian city of Cartagena.  Shop around.  You should be able to pick up return flights from Europe for under £400.


Shop around for a good deal

Getting around

Depoending on your budget, you’re either going to be seeing a lot of airports or taking a long-distance bus.  Try Avianca El Salvador, formerly branded as Taca, and Copa Airlines, both of which have extensive networks across the region.  if your time is relatively short, this is a good way of freeing up time for sightseeing.  Book well in advance to secure the best deals.

As with elsewhere in Latin America, many companies offer relatively comfortable “luxury” coach services but you’ll also find plenty of chicken buses knocking around on the shorter routes which make up for what they lack in comfort with bucketfuls of character.  The big name in the bus world is Tica, kind of a Central American version of Greyhound.  I’ve also had good experiences with Hedman Alas in Honduras and King Quality.  At peak times you’re best to reserve your ticket a few days in advance.


Local buses in Nicaragua

Check out point to point transfers too.  For instance, Gray Line offer hotel to hotel transfers at reasonable prices in Costa Rica and similar tourist shuttles are also easy to find between Guatemala’s main hubs.

One thing to note is safety.  In some parts of Central America, buses can be held up by armed gangs.  Opt for a better company who videos passengers on entry and screens luggage and pick a day bus rather than overnight travel on the most notorious routes.  Keep up to date with safety by monitoring the FCO’s travel advice by country.


What to see

There’s way to much for me to cover here, so you should consider these itineraries just a start and delve into one of the many online resources or good guide books on the region to help you make your own detailed plans.

A week in Panama

Begin in Panama City and spend at least a day absorbing the atmosphere of the Casco Viejo, the city’s old town.  Some compare it to Old Havana and whether you agree or not, if you like Cuba you’ll like this too.


Casco Viejo

The canal zone is a worthwhile day trip, easily accessed from the capital.  You’ll pass through the Gaillard Cut, where the Chagres River flows into the canal as well as several locks before returning to the city.  I booked this through my accommodation La Estancia B&B, which has since closed, but the company they used is still very much in business and takes direct bookings.


Panama Canal

Another excellent day trip is to Emberá Puru.  Guide Anne de Barrigon will take you into the rainforest to meet the Emberá tribe and learn a little of their way of life.  She knows her stuff – she married a villager!  Part of the journey involves travelling upriver in a dugout canoe which is sure to prove a memorable experience as well.


Embera kids

Extend your trip either by spending more time in Panama City or by kicking back and relaxing on one of Panama’s beautiful islands, in the Bocas del Toro archipelago or in San Blas.


Isla Diablo, San Blas

Panama links:

Embera Puru:


Canal transits:


A week in Costa Rica

With so many national parks to choose from, it’s hard to whittle them down.  If you only have a week, I’d recommend splitting it into two.  Focus on Tortuguero for a two night stay.  I based myself at Laguna Lodge which from July to November can offer turtle watching walks.  The beach and surrounding canals offer a chance to see plenty of birdlife and just unwind.



Then move on to La Fortuna, a pleasant little town which is the jumping off point for Volcan Arenal.  There are hot springs, nature walks, horseback rides and of course, the chance to watch for any activity coming from this active volcano.  The Arenal Observatory Lodge makes a great base, especially if you choose one of the rooms directly facing the volcano.  Nearby, they can also offer activities such as ziplining and whitewater rafting if the volcano isn’t making your adrenaline pump enough.


La Fortuna with Arenal in the background

Costa Rica links:





A week in Nicaragua

My suggestion for a week in Nicaragua would be to base yourself in the charming city of Granada.  It sits on the shores of Lake Nicaragua and has a wealth of delightful streets to lose yourself in, crammed with historic buildings including the egg yolk yellow cathedral.  Tourist infrastructure is good and there are plenty of hotels and restaurants to choose from.



From the city, there are plenty of day trips to keep you absorbed.  Head up Volcan Mombacho where a truck will drive you up into the cloud forest.  Alternatively, stand on the crater rim of the active Volcan Masaya and sniff the sulphur.  It’s currently more active than it was when I visited; take a guide for a night tour and you might be able to see the lava lake that’s filled the crater.  Check conditions locally before you go.


Masaya volcano

Laguna del Apoyo is another option.  This crater lake is now a nature reserve and there are plenty of activities that can be arranged here such as kayaking, swimming and boating.  Extend your trip by visiting Ometepe Island with its twin volcanic peaks.

Nicaragua links:

Volcan Mombacho:


Volcan Masaya activity:


A week in Honduras

Getting around Honduras can be a little worrying as there are serious safety concerns within and between its two largest cities, San Pedro Sula and Tegucigalpa.  Persevere and base yourself in the safe and sleepy town of Copan Ruinas.  The nearby ruins are free of the crowds that plague other Mayan sites in the region and you’ll see plenty of raucous scarlet macaws to boot.


Scarlet macaw at Copan’s ruins

It’s easy to arrange a trip to the nearby Finca el Cisne, which focuses on Criollo chocolate and coffee growing.  Day trips give you the opportunity to explore the plantation and take a scenic horseback ride in the surrounding countryside; it’s also possible to extend your stay overnight.


Preparing the horses at Finca el Cisne

If you can drag yourself away, extend your stay with a trip to Roatan.  Honduras boasts a lengthy Caribbean coastline, but it’s the Bay Islands which draw the tourists.  The usual water-based activities are available and the sunsets are a spectacle.  If you’re looking for a guide to help you explore the island, then Cleve Bodden comes highly recommended.  He’s warm, funny and above all, knowledgeable about his island home.


Roatan sunset

Honduras links:

Finca el Cisne:


Cleve Bodden:


A week in El Salvador

Beginning from San Salvador, the country’s capital, take a drive to Lake Coatapeque, popular on weekends as a family hangout.  Continue towards the picturesque Ruta de las Flores.  This 36km road winds through village after village adorned with flowers, dotted with art galleries and sprinkled with more cafes than you could ask for.  From Juayua to Ataco via Apaneca, there’s much to keep you busy.



Suchitoto should be your base for the rest of your week.  Team up with El Gringo, who can provide accommodation as well as tour guiding services.  Together, we visited Project Moje, a gang rehabilitation project, as well as the arts and crafts centres of Ilobasco and San Sebastian.


Textile weaving in San Sebastian

El Salvador links:

El Gringo:


Project Moje:


A week in Guatemala

The obvious base to begin your week in Guatemala is the pretty town of Antigua.  There’s a wide choice of hotels, restaurants and cafes and a well-developed tourist infrastructure.  The town has lots of attractions in its own right, including the chance to make your own chocolate, but also makes a convenient base for side trips to the atmospheric market at Chichicastenango and beautiful Lake Atitlan.


Doing the washing, Antigua-style

If you’re looking for the other must-see, then it has to be Tikal.  Of all the Mayan sites in the country, this is the stand out attraction. Deep in the jungle, it was abandoned over a thousand years ago, but its iconic ruins make this a UNESCO World Heritage Site.  Don’t miss the Lost World Pyramid and the Temple of the Grand Jaguar.  There have been issues with tourist safety in and on the way to Tikal so as with Honduras, it’s especially important to keep abreast of government advice.



Guatemala links:

Chocolate making:


Tourist shuttle service:


A week in Belize

Belize was known as British Honduras until 1981 and English is its official language.  I think this more Caribbean, less Latino feel is why it was my least favourite of the seven countries.  That’s not to write it off though.  Transferring at the airport onto a little plane to head out to Ambergris Caye was laid back and fun, but the views down to the water were spectacular.  The diving’s great, with access to the famous Blue Hole a possibility.


Looking down on the islands from the air

It’s worth heading back to the mainland as Belize has some interesting Mayan sites to visit.  I visited Lamanai on a day trip from Ambergris Caye, heading inland on an old American school us and then up the New River by boat.  There’s a Mennonite community living in Shipyard, not far from the ruins, and you might get a glimpse of them going about their business as you pass by.  There are other worthwhile Mayan ruins to see in Belize, among them Caracol and Altun-Ha.


Head upriver to Lamanai, whose name means “submerged crocodile”

If you want to extend your time in Belize, Placencia gets a good write up as a place to chill out and recharge the batteries.

Belize links:

Lamanai tours:


Ambergris Caye information:


In summary

You’ll need several months to do justice to all seven countries in the same trip, but it’s easy to combine a couple of neighbouring nations and concentrate on one part of the region.  For me, the countries that are least developed are the ones I’m drawn to revisit – El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua.  But each one rewards the traveller, so whichever you choose, I’m sure you’ll have a great trip!

How to reduce your risk of being caught up in a Caribbean hurricane

As Irma finally begins to blow herself out, the US and many Caribbean islands have been left reeling from her effects.  Sustained 185mph winds have been recorded during this Category 5 storm, beaten only by Hurricane Allen in 1980 which registered winds of 190mph.  On top of that, of course, are the floods which result from torrential rain and the even more dangerous storm surges caused when winds slam ocean water back onshore with terrifying force.  Even a Category 1 hurricane is not to be taken lightly, as those who live in hurricane-prone regions will testify.  For casual holidaymakers unused to such events, it’s even more frightening.  So has seeing Irma’s devastation marked the end of your Caribbean holiday plans?  Here’s why it shouldn’t and how you can avoid getting caught up in such a disaster.


Choose your island carefully

Statistically, some Caribbean islands are hit by hurricanes far more often than others.  According to data compiled by stormcaribe.com for storms between 1944 and 2010, you’re most likely to be affected if you’re in Abaco in the Bahamas, with Grand Bahama, Bimini and New Providence islands hot on its heels.  A couple of islands in the Netherlands Antilles also occur in the top ten, notably Saba and St Eustatius.  Making up the numbers are Nevis, Key West, Tortola in the BVI and the Cuban capital Havana.


Conversely, the bottom of the list features some well known names.  Barbados, Grenada, St Lucia and St Vincent are much less likely to experience a hurricane.  Such severe storms rarely if ever take a southerly track, making the likes of Trinidad and Tobago, Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire the safest bet in the region.  For the full list check out this link:


A broader picture (and more up to date, factoring in storms up to 2016) is offered by Hurricane City.  Their list factors in storms as well as hurricanes, giving a more rounded and perhaps more accurate appraisal of the risk posed for the Caribbean, Bermuda and the USA.  Joining the Bahamas to represent the Caribbean in the top ten are the Cayman Islands.  Because this list encompasses storms as well, there are a few northerly locations there too:



Avoid peak hurricane season

If you really want to go to the islands that lie in the path of potential hurricanes then you’ve got to be picky about when you go.  Technically, the Atlantic hurricane season begins in June, but rarely do we see really damaging hurricanes before late August.  2005 was a bumper year for big storms – Katrina among them – and was the year when we saw the earliest Category 4 storm (Dennis on July 8th) and Category 5 storm (Emily on July 17th).  The storm season officially comes to a close at the end of November though on rare occasions they can continue until December or even January.  Yes, you guessed it, that happened in 2005 too.  They’d already run through the named hurricanes by October when Wilma hit and eventually needed to borrow six letters of the Greek alphabet.  Tropical Storm Zeta finally brought the season to a close when it dissipated on January 6th 2006.


Check the NOAA forecasts

Each year, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) offers a forecast for the upcoming season.  They take in a number of factors such as ocean temperatures and, though it’s not an exact science, have a good track record in identifying busy years.  So far, 2017 is falling in line with predictions.  It kicked off with Tropical Storm Arlene in April – two months ahead of schedule – and with the likes of Harvey and Irma, is set to be another of those unforgettable seasons.  If you want to avoid being caught up in a severe hurricane, then if it’s been quiet, you’re much less likely to find yourself in trouble if you want to make a late booking.  And if the worst happens, this leaflet is packed with useful advice:



My thoughts are with those who found themselves in the path of recent Atlantic hurricanes.  I hope that those affected get back on their feet and that the impacted economies recover as quickly as possible.  Once they do, they’re going to need your tourist dollars, so don’t write off this beautiful region just yet.